Ontology exercises, set 1

Exercises for class and part relationships

For each question, the first class is related to each of the other two classes by either a subclass, regional part or material / constitutional part relationship.

Grab a piece of paper and test yourself on these questions before continuing with the tutorial. (Answers are below, but don't peek yet.)

1) Car???Plastic, Metal

2) Car???Trunk, Passenger compartment

3) Car???Sedan, Station wagon

4) Tooth???Crown of tooth, Root of tooth

5) Tooth???Enamel, Dental pulp

6) Bird???Chicken, Dove

7) Chicken???Wing, Leg

8) Chicken egg???Shell, Yolk

9) Hat???Brim, Crown

10) Latte???Expresso, Milk

11) Transmission???Manual transmission, Automatic transmission

12) Cookie???Chocolate chip cookie, Ginger snap

13) Chocolate chip cookie???Chocolate chip, Butter

14) Book???Autobiography, Novel

15) Glove???Right glove, Left glove


1) Car has material (or constitutional) parts Plastic and Metal, because plastic and metal are each more simple in composition than the entire car.

2) Car has regional parts Trunk and Passenger compartment, because the trunk and passenger compartments are spatially distinct regions of the car.

3) Car has subclasses Sedan and Station wagon, because sedans and station wagons are types of cars.

4) Tooth has regional parts Crown (above the gum line) and Root (below the gum line).

5) Tooth has material (or constitutional) parts Enamel and Dental pulp, because enamel and dental pulp are more simple in composition than the entire tooth.

6) Bird has subclasses Chicken and Dove, because chickens and doves are types of birds.

7) Chicken has regional parts Wing and Leg, because the wing and the leg are spatially distinct regions of a chicken's body.

8) Chicken egg has material (or constitutional) parts Shell and Yolk, because the shell and yolk are each more simple in composition than the entire egg.

9) Hat has regional parts Brim (the part that extends away from the head) and Crown (the region above the brim that covers the head).

10) Latte has material (or constitutional) parts Expresso and Milk.

11) Transmission has subclasses Manual transmission and Automatic transmission, because manual transmissions and automatic transmissions are types of transmissions.

12) Cookie has subclass Chocolate chip cookie and Ginger snap, because chocolate chip cookies and ginger snaps are are types of cookies.

13) Chocolate chip cookie has material (or constitutional) parts Chocolate chip and Butter, because chocolate chips and butter are each more simple in composition than the entire chocolate chip cookie.

14) Book has subclasses Autobiography and Novel, because an autobiography and a novel are each a type of book.

15) Glove has subclasses Right glove and Left glove, because a right glove and a left glove are each a type of glove.