Craniofacial Human Developmental Ontology (CHDO)

Human developmental anatomy

The CHDO models development of the human head, from the zygote through the fetus.


The CHDO is a subset of the CHO that describes human developmental from the zygote through the fetus. The class structure of this human developmental ontology parallels the adult counterpart. The defining attributes for classes are based primarily on structural properties (1). Embryological structures are classified according to definitions from the Foundational Model of Anatomy (FMA) for the different classes of anatomical structures, such as Organ (e.g. Neural tube is_a Embryonic organ, which in turn is_a Developmental organ) and Organ part (e.g. Rhombomere is_a Region of neural tube, which in turn is_a Embryonic organ part).


Content development is currently focused on the development of the lips and the palate.


  1. Mejino, J.L.V, Travillian, R.S., Cox, T.C., Shapiro, L.G., Brinkley, J.F. Human developmental domain of the Ontology of Craniofacial Development and Malformation. Proceedings, 4th International Conference on Biomedical Ontology (ICBO). Montreal; p. 74–7.