Craniofacial Human-Mouse Mappings Ontology (CHMMO)

Human-mouse mappings

The CHMMO maps between homologous structures in the human and mouse heads.


The CHMMO contains structure-based mappings for homologous anatomical entities. CHMMO mappings are explicit hypotheses of anatomical homology between human and mouse structures. This was an explicit design decision, made for the purpose of enabling linkages to be drawn among anatomical and phenotypic structures derived from orthologous genes. Mappings are based on explicit molecular evidence when available (1,2). In the absence of direct molecular evidence, mappings are inferred on the basis of the vertebrate Bauplan (3).


Mappings are currently represented in one direction (either mouse-to-human or human-to-mouse). Most mappings are “1-to-1” and so far we have only included a few “1-to-many” or “1-to-null” mappings.


Examples of classes to try in the search box are “Face”, “External nose”, and “Palate”.


  1. Brugmann, S.A., Tapadia, M.D., Helms, J.A., 2006. The molecular origins of species-specific facial pattern. Current Topics in Developmental Biology 73, 1–42.
  2. Laue, K., Pogoda, H.-M., Daniel, P.B., van Haeringen, A., Alanay, Y., von Ameln, S., Rachwalski, M., Morgan, T., Gray, M.J., Breuning, M.H., Sawyer, G.M., Sutherland-Smith, A.J., Nikkels, P.G., Kubisch, C., Bloch, W., Wollnik, B., Hammerschmidt, M., Robertson, S.P., 2011. Craniosynostosis and multiple skeletal anomalies in humans and zebrafish result from a defect in the localized degradation of retinoic acid. American Journal of Human Genetics. 89, 595–606.
  3. Fish, J.L., Villmoare, B., Köbernick, K., Compagnucci, C., Britanova, O., Tarabykin, V., Depew, M.J., 2011. Satb2, modularity, and the evolvability of the vertebrate jaw. Evolution and Development 13, 549–564.